The country is entering the age of knowledge when increasing returns would be ubiquitous. The democratic governance structures of this country have evolved, over the course of six decades, sets of complex institutions systems and practices that bind or otherwise relate S&T to the other spheres. With about four thousand research and development organizations, large organized systems of knowledge production, millions of knowledge-workers and an even larger number of citizens trying to engage in knowledge-based activities ranging from agriculture through semi-skilled workers to industrial workers, coupled with the fact of the country being especially gifted with immense diversity in natural resources –– the opportunity set of potential outcomes are immense and invigorating.

The long twentieth century in Indian S&T based developmental experiments, in particular at grass roots, has thrown up immense volumes of data, facts and artifacts. A crucial issue emerges. The country very badly needs a strong mechanism to capture data related to S&T and innovation right from the regulatory or executive levels to source-points where S&T output or innovations get generated.

This Report presents several facets of Indian S&T. In lieu of attempting the development of a set of traditionally known indicators of S&T, the attempt here has been to capture multiple facets of Indian economy and society where S&T makes contributions. With unstated theoretical bases, contributors presented research conclusions in the form of several portrayals. Given the fact that S&T interfacing the economy and society has very large dimensions this Report could take up only a handful. Such a collage offers albeit a picture of where Indian S&T is located.

The report is the first of its kind from this country. It is targeted at a wide readership ranging from policy makers and advisors to academic readers as well as the common person. The contents of the report are:

Acknowledgement

Director, NISTADS

Foreward

Professor S.K.Joshi

Introduction

P.Banerjee

 

 

 

Overview

 

 

 

Pattern of Enrolments at Different Educational Levels

Vipan Kumar, NareshKumar, Neelam Kumar

 

Enrolment Trends at different levels

 

 

Pattern of enrolment in professional courses

 

 

 

 

Vocational Education in India

Indranil Biswas

 

Graphical representation of capacity and availability of ITIs and ITCs in India

 

 

Paramedical practitioner Status in Rural India

 

 

School- a part of vocational Studies-brief statistics

 

 

Other premier organizations providing Vocational Training (Govt. and Non-Govt.)

 

 

Communities trained by KVIC

 

 

Initiatives taken in 11th Five year plan

 

 

 

 

Educational Infrastructure in India

Naresh Kumar, VipanKumar, NeelamKumar

 

 

 

Performance in Sciences at Secondary/Higher Secondary Level

Vipan Kumar, Naresh Kumar, Nitin Gupta

 

Innovative Practices of Indian Students

 

 

Performance in State Boards (2007)

 

 

 

 

Stock of Indian S&T Manpower

Deepak Saxena, P. Banerjee

 

 

 

Inter-State Migration at Secondary level

Vipan Kumar, Avinash Kshitij

 

 

 

International Migration of Students

Naresh Kumar, Vipan Kumar

 

Flow of students from India and China

 

 

 

 

Migration of Indians Abroad

Deepak Saxena, P. Banerjee

 

 

 

Measures to promote Basic Science

Naresh Kumar , Vipan Kumar

 

 

 

Higher Education and Research Training

P. Banerjee

 

 

 

Medical Manpower in India: An Overview

Kasturi Mandal

 

 

 

Gender and Science in India

Neelam Kumar

 

Historical Background

 

 

Contemporary data

 

 

Indian S&T systems: the place of Females

 

Overview

 

 

 

 

Financing of S&T in India

Dinesh Abrol, Vinod Upadhyay, Pawan Sikka, Parvathi K. Iyer

 

Financial Resources for S&T

 

 

Financial Resources for R&D

 

 

Financial resources for project funding

 

 

Technology Financing System in India

 

 

Technology Development and Innovation Programme

 

 

Technology Funding by TDB

 

 

Special Technological Projects Funded by DST

 

 

Development of Bio-tech Products

 

 

Renewable Energy Projects

 

 

New Initiatives

 

 

Erstwhile Technology Financing Schemes

 

 

Sectoral analyses

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

 

 

Financing of Health S&T

Parvathi K. Iyer, Dinesh Abrol

 

Public Health Expenditure

 

 

Central Sector

 

 

State Sector

 

 

Future Initiatives

 

 

 

 

Financing of Environmental S&T

Kasturi Mandal

 

 

 

Investment in S&T and Innovation in India

Kasturi Mandal, Vipan Kumar, P. Banerjee

 

Data on funding of S&T and R&D

 

 

Mode of funding and capacity in S&T

 

 

 

Overview

 

   
S&T Infrastructure

Devashree Nayak, P.V.S. Kumar

 

Ministry of Science & Technology (MST)

 
 

Department of Space (DOS)

 
 

Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)

 
 

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)

 
 

Ministry of Agriculture

 
 

Ministry of Earth Sciences

 
 

Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD)

 
 

Ministry of Communication & information Technology (MCIT)

 
 

Software Export- Import Statistics

 
 

Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s)

 
 

Observations and Conclusion

 
     

Coordination and Governance: S&T structure and infrastructure

Kasturi Mandal, Avinash Kshitij, P. Banerjee

 

Modes of governance

 

 

Modes of funding

 

 

Governance types

 

 

Infrastructure dedicated to S&T

 

 

Schemes and Programmes for S&T Infrastructure development

 

 

Lessons learnt

 

 

 

 

The Regional Innovation System: Tracing the evolution in main regional governance characteristics

M.U. Khan

 

Appraisal of Regional Governance System

 

 

Regional policy benchmarking and trans-regional learning

 

 

Innovation governance and policy trends

 

 

 

 

Science in Kerala – a Snapshot

Gangan Prathap

 

 

 

Science and Technology Mapping in States of India

Kasturi Mandal, Anand Mohan Mishra

 

 

 

Technology Transfer

Kavita Mehra

 

 

 

Technology Park: Snapshots

Kavita Mehra

 

Software Technology Parks of India (STPI)

 

 

 

 

Biotechnology Parks and Incubators

Kavita Mehra

 

Lucknow Biotech Park

 

 

Shapoorji Pallonji Biotech park Pvt. Ltd.

 

 

MITCON Biotechnology Incubation Centre

 

 

Other BT Parks

 

 

 

 

New Public Initiatives in Biotechnology

Kavita Mehra

 

Biotechnology Industry Partnership Programme (BIPP)

 

 

Biotechnology Industry Research & Development Assistance Council (BIRAC)

 

 

 

 

Public R&D – Private Industry Partnerships

Rama Bansal

 

Organization Specific Partnership Enabling Initiatives

 

 

Financial Institutions for promoting R&D Agency-Industry Partnerships

 

 

Cases of Technology Transfer

 

 

 

 

The CSIR

Kirti Joshi

 

Inventions

 

 

Recent initiatives

 

 

Social causes

 

 

 

 

Editors from India in Global Journals

P. Banerjee

 

 

 

Disease Coverage in Web Editions of three Indian English Language Dailies

K.C. Garg, Bharvi Dutt, Suresh Kumar

 

 

 

S&T Coverage in English-language Indian dailies

Bharvi Dutt, K.C.Garg, Suresh Kumar

 

 

 

Public Understanding of Science in India

Gauhar Raza, Surjit Singh, PVS Kumar and Devashree Nayak

 

 

 

Overview

 

Salient Features of Growth, Efficiency and Technical Change in the Indian Economy over Sixty Years

Panchanan Das

 

 

 

Technical changes in the Indian Economy as Evident from Input-Output Tables 1993-94 and 2003-04

Pradip Biswas, Panchanan Das, P. Banerjee

 

Innovation in the economy

 

 

Technological changes in relation to food crops

 

 

Technological changes in relation to allied agricultural activities

 

 

Technological changes in relation to agro-processed industries

 

 

Technological changes in relation to textiles

 

 

Technological changes in relation to furniture, wood products, etc.:

 

 

Technological changes in relation to rubber, chemical and others:

 

 

Changes in Energy Intensity in Selected Industries: Evidence from Input-Output Tables 1993-94 and 2003-04

 

 

Imports of technology intensive inputs

 

 

 

 

Trends in High Technology Trade

Sanjib Pohit

 

 

 

Industrial R&D in India: Broad Indications

Sunil Mani

 

Trends in R&D Investment

 

 

Trends in Patenting

 

 

Trends in technology trade balance

 

 

 

 

Industrial R&D in India: Contemporary Scenario

Sujit Bhattacharya, Kashmiri Lal

 

R&D Investment: International Scenario

 

 

Industrial R&D-Indian Scenario

 

 

Key findings

 

 

 

 

FDI in R&D in India

A.K. Bhardwaj, Rammi Kapoor

 

Internationalization of R&D

 

 

New Trends in R&D Internationalization

 

 

Indian Scenario

 

 

Linkages with Indian Production and R&D system

 

 

 

 

R&D in Private Industry in Post liberalization Period (1990-91 to 2006-07)

Yogesh Suman, Kavita Mehra

 

 

 

Pattern of innovation and R&D in select sectors by listed and other companies of India

Avinash Kshitij, Bikramjit Sinha, P. Banerjee

 

Indian companies and R&D

 

 

Inter-Sector restructuring

 

 

Non-R&D innovation and R&D in select industry sectors based on mostly listed companies

 

 

Regional Performances: sector-wise & based on mostly listed companies

 

 

 

 

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises of India: Innovation Status and State of Affairs

P. Banerjee

 

Industrial organization in tiny sector

 

 

Public procurement for MSME

 

 

Rural inputs into MSME

 

 

Sustainability of MSME

 

 

Knowhow and knowledge flows for MSME

 

 

Entrepreneurship in non hi-tech MSME

 

 

Innovation & technological change agency: Governance and monitoring

 

 

Importance of MSME in Indian Industry and Changes of Industrial Policy

Indranil Biswas

 

Entrepreneurship in MSME

Indranil Biswas, Avinash Kshitij, Saurabh Atri

 

Ancillarization of MSME units in India

 

 

Skill-pull in Indian MSME

 

 

Exchange of Knowledge and Other Factors between MSME and Factories in Different Geographies

Avinash Kshitij, Indranil Biswas, P. Banerjee

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-R&D Innovation in Indian Organized Factory Enterprises

Bikramjit Sinha,, Avinash Kshitij, Yogesh Suman, P. Banerjee

 

Policy targets for innovation

 

 

Innovation policy types

 

 

Policy and governance of innovative changes

 

 

Innovation policy schematic

 

 

Nature of innovative changes

 

 

Innovation patterns in organized factory-based enterprises

 

 

Innovation in total manufacturing industries

 

 

Another account of innovation in factory sector

 

 

Innovation across different types of ownership

 

 

Location based innovation in industries

 

 

Inter-state comparison of industrial innovation

 

 

Innovations in sectors – Non R&D aspects

 

 

 

 

Inter sector comparative innovation in some select sectors of factories

Yogesh Suman

 

 

 

Recent Trend in Technology Up-gradation in the Indian Textile Industry: Need for S&T Intervention

Pradip Biswas

 

 

 

Indian Automotive Industry: Innovation and Growth

Mamata Parhi

 

Chronology and typology of India’s automotive growth

 

 

Growth Dynamics of Automotive Segment

 

 

Auto Component Industry – Recent Performance Indicators

 

 

 

 

Automobile Sector: Innovative Changes in Factory Sector over 2000-04

Panchanan Das

 

 

 

Tyre Industry in India

Parvathi K. Iyer

 

R&D Efforts, Exports & Sales

 

 

Technology Generation

 

 

Automation

 

 

Recent Initiatives

 

 

Future Prospects

 

 

 

 

India’s Telecommunications Industry

Sunil Mani

 

Contribution of telecommunications sector to India’s economy

 

 

Dimensions of the growth performance of telecommunications services

 

 

 

 

Growth Performance of Technology Oriented Industries in India: Case – Biotechnology

S. Visalakshi

 

Biotechnology Industry in India

 

 

Structure of Biotech industry

 

 

Biotech market in India

 

 

Performance of Biotech Industry in India

 

 

 

 

Pharmaceutical Industry

S. Visalakshi, Varun Satia, Parvathi K. Iyer

 

Structure

 

 

Performance

 

 

 

 

Structure and Performance of Small and Medium Scale Pharmaceutical Firms

Parvathi K. Iyer

 

 

 

Regulatory Issues in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

Parvathi K. Iyer

 

Major Regulatory Bodies

 

 

Temporal Progression of Drug Policies and Acts

 

 

Drug Pricing

 

 

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

 

 

Clinical Trials

 

 

Medical Devices

 

 

Biotech products

 

 

 

 

Indian Herbal Sector

Kirti Joshi

 

Infrastructure

 

 

Industry

 

 

Government stand

 

 

IPR Issues

 

 

Loss to the Country

 

 

 

 

Human Vaccine Science and Technology Status in India

Y. Madhavi

 

Vaccine R&D Status in India

 

 

Status of Vaccine R&D Achievements

 

 

Indian Vaccine manufacturing capabilities

 

 

 

 

Knowledge Capability and Capacity in Biomedical field

P. Banerjee

 

Research from hospitals: evidence

Avinash Kshitij, P. Banerjee

 

 

 

Institutional distribution of biomedical knowledge

P. Banerjee

 

Role of hospital in research

P. Banerjee

 

 

 

Biomedical knowledge assets in Indian cities

P. Banerjee

 

 

 

India’s Capability and Competence in Energy sector R&D

Kirti Joshi, Avinash Kshitij, Bikramjit Sinha, Vipan Kumar, Kasturi Mandal

 

Demand and supply scenario

 

 

Role of Private sector in Energy Sector R&D

 

 

Role of Public sector in Energy Sector R&D

 

 

Inferences

 

 

 

 

Materials R&D and Innovation

Avinash Kshitij, Bikramjit Sinha

 

Materials Production in India

 

 

India’s Materials Trade

 

 

Materials R&D Strategy of India

 

 

Materials R&D in the private sector

 

 

Materials R&D in the universities/research organizations: Knowledge Generation

 

 

The Way Ahead

 

 

 

 

Overview

 

 

 

 

Status of India in Science and Technology as reflected in its Publication Output in Scopus International Database, 1997-2007

B.M. Gupta, S.M. Dhawan

 

India’s Publication Share and Rank in World

 

 

Subject Profile of India in Science and Technology

 

 

India’s Research Output by Geographical Regions

 

 

Output & Impact of National Funding

 

 

High Productivity S&T Institutions in India

 

 

Status of India’s International Collaboration in Science & Technology

 

 

Most Productive Journals in Science & Technology

 

 

High Cited Papers from India

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

 

 

Indian Scientific Output as seen through Indian Science Abstracts

K.C. Garg, Suresh Kumar, Bharvi  Dutt

 

 

 

Mathematics Output

A. Kshitij , P. Banerjee

 

 

 

Global Malaria Vaccine Research: Reflections from Publications

K.C. Garg, Suresh Kumar, Y. Madhavi, Mala Bahl

 

 

 

Profile of Indian Science Journals

K.C. Garg, Suresh Kumar, Bharvi Dutt

 

 

 

Membership of Editorial Boards of US and UK Journals in Clinical Medicine Field

Praveen Sharma

 

 

 

Appropriation and Value of Publications, the Knowledge Assets

P. Banerjee

 

 

 

Access to International Journals using Citations: a case study of Medical Science Research in India

K.C. Garg, Suresh Kumar, Bharvi Dutt

 

 

 

Indian Patent Output 1990-2007

V.K. Gupta

 

Salient highlights of the findings

 

 

 

 

Indian Publications and Patents Output in Information and Communication Technology

Akshay Khatreja, V.K. Gupta

 

Growth in publications

 

 

Growth in patenting

 

 

 

 

Indian Publications and Patents Output in Nanotechnology

Anit Kumar Panda, V.K. Gupta

 

Salient results

 

 

 

 

Indian Patents in Biotechnology

S. Visalakshi

 

Salient features

 

 

Nature of Applicants for Indian BT Patents

 

 

Focus of Indian Biotech Patents

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

 

 

Strategic Worth of Patenting

P. Banerjee

 

Some observations

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

 

 

Overview

 

 

 

 

Science and Technology for Rural Development: A Synergy Approach

Rangan Dutta

 

 

 

Non-Farm Occupation in Rural India

A.K. Mukhopadhyay, D. Gangopadhyay, Saswati Nayak

 

Strengths

 

 

Weaknesses

 

 

 

 

Rural Development: A strategy for poverty alleviation in India

D. Gangopadhyay, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, Pushpa Singh

 

 

 

Status of use of Modern Implements, Farm Machinery and Hand Tools

Indranil Biswas, Bikramjit Sinha

 

Availability of information about new technology

 

 

Credit and Finance for Farmers

 

 

Major farm machinery training and testing institutes in India

 

 

Usage of modern farm implements

 

 

Export Import scenario

 

 

Hand tools

 

 

Some key observations

 

 

 

 

One Segment of Unorganized Sector Workers:  Rural Artisans

S.S. Solanki

 

Present Scenario

 

 

Some Insights from Rural Artisans

 

 

Organization of Trainings

 

 

Policy Implications

 

 

 

 

Shelter: A Big Challenge for Rural India

Bikramjit Sinha, Indranil Biswas

 

Present Scenario of housing

 

 

Government efforts in rural shelter

 

 

Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY)

 

 

State-run housing Schemes

 

 

Financing Rural Housing

 

 

Research Agencies in Rural Housing

 

 

Creating a market for innovation in housing – a push and pull approach

 

 

 

 

Drinking Water Supply vis-a-vis Technological Interventions for Social Empowerment of Rural India

Kasturi Mandal

 

Progress achieved so far

 

 

Health cost

 

 

Role of Technology in Rural Water Supply

 

 

Some Technological Success stories

 

 

 

 

Rural Sanitation: A step towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal No 7, Target 10

Kasturi Mandal

 

 

 

Rural Energy Security in India: Reality Checks

Bikramjit Sinha, Indranil Biswas

 

Facts of energy scenario in rural India

 

 

Pattern of rural energy consumption

 

 

Government initiatives

 

 

Sources for Rural Energy

 

 

The way ahead

 

Applications of Geospatial Information Technologies for Rural Development & Inclusive Growth in India

Subhan Khan

 

Some Applications of Geospatial Technologies

 

 

Some Policy Implications

 

 

 

 

Government Intervention in Focal Areas of Traditional System of Medicine

Kirti Joshi

 

Conservation

 

 

Cultivation

 

 

XI five year plan

 

 

Existing R & D Infrastructure

 

 

Inferences

 

 

 

 

Impact of Science & Technology on Indian Fisheries Sector

B. Ganesh Kumar, K.K. Datta

 

 

 

Mushrooms: The vegetable of future

NSK Harsh, Kirti Joshi

 

Indian Status

 

 

Sustenance

 

 

Food security

 

 

Major Constraints

 

 

 

 

Horticulture: Post Harvest Management

Saswati Nayak, A.K. Mukhopadhyay

 

Post Harvest Research

 

 

Fruits and Vegetable Processing

 

 

Recent Policy Initiatives

 

 

EXIM Scenario

 

 

Future post-harvest research priorities

 

 

 

 

Key issues in Post-harvest Management of Fruits and Vegetables in India

L. Pulamte

 

Inadequate post harvest infrastructures

 

 

Lack of processing facilities

 

 

Pesticidal contamination

 

 

Plant breeding for quality

 

 

 

 

Livestock in Mixed Farming: A Leveraging Asset for Inclusive Rural Development in India

Indranil Biswas, Bikramjit Sinha

 

Status of livestock asset according to land holding capacity

 

 

Livestock Diseases and clinics

 

 

 

 

Sericulture Industry in India – A Review

D. Gangopadhyay

 

Present status

 

 

Types of silk

 

 

Position in global sericulture

 

 

Science, Technology and Trends

 

 

Potentiality of the sericulture industry

 

 

Summing up

 

 

 

 

Potential of Bio-pesticides in Indian agriculture vis-a-vis Rural Development

Bikramjit Sinha, Indranil Biswas

 

Scope of Bio-pesticides

 

 

Factors affecting growth of Bio-pesticides

 

 

Usage of Bio-pesticides

 

 

Industry Overview

 

 

R &D Status of Bio-pesticides

 

 

Bio-pesticides in India

 

 

Public support system

 

 

Bio-pesticides for rural development

 

 

Opportunities

 

 

 

 

Indigenous Agricultural Systems of Northeast India

L. Pulamte

 

Rice based farming system of the Apatanis of Arunachal Pradesh

 

 

Zabo based terrace wet rice cum fish culture of the Chakhesangs

 

 

Bamboo drip irrigation system of Jaintia and Khasi Hills of Meghalaya

 

 

Alder-based jhum system of the Angamis of Nagaland

 

 

 

 

Foodgrains: Seed Development & Production

Kirti Joshi

 

Government initiatives

 

 

R&D Focus

 

 

Seed Strategy/ Long Term Policy Framework 

 

 

 

 

GM Crops: Potential for Second Green Revolution?

Kirti Joshi

 

Legal institution

 

 

GM Foods

 

 

Implications

 

 

 

 

ICT in Agriculture Marketing

Mala Bahl

 

The Indian Agricultural Scenario

 

 

A Few Important Models, Initiatives, Projects of the Agricultural Marketing Information Network:

 

 

Major Recommendations

 

 

 

 

Mechanism of Developing and Fixing Food Standards

Kirti Joshi

 

Developing food standards

 

 

Regulatory Bodies

 

 

Food Safety Certification

 

 

Food Testing Infrastructure

 

 

 

 

Towards Agricultural Innovation Policy

Suresh Pal, Uree N Choudhary, Rashi Mitta

 

Agricultural Research System

 

 

Capacity for Innovation: Role of Policy and Institutions

 

 

Inference

 

 

 

 

A paper version of an Extended Summary of this report can be availed from:    NISTADS, Pusa Gate, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi – 110012

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