The country is entering the age of knowledge when increasing returns would be ubiquitous. The democratic governance structures of this country have evolved, over the course of six decades, sets of complex institutions systems and practices that bind or otherwise relate S&T to the other spheres. With about four thousand research and development organizations, large organized systems of knowledge production, millions of knowledge-workers and an even larger number of citizens trying to engage in knowledge-based activities ranging from agriculture through semi-skilled workers to industrial workers, coupled with the fact of the country being especially gifted with immense diversity in natural resources –– the opportunity set of potential outcomes are immense and invigorating.

The long twentieth century in Indian S&T based developmental experiments, in particular at grass roots, has thrown up immense volumes of data, facts and artifacts. A crucial issue emerges. The country very badly needs a strong mechanism to capture data related to S&T and innovation right from the regulatory or executive levels to source-points where S&T output or innovations get generated.

This Report presents several facets of Indian S&T. In lieu of attempting the development of a set of traditionally known indicators of S&T, the attempt here has been to capture multiple facets of Indian economy and society where S&T makes contributions. With unstated theoretical bases, contributors presented research conclusions in the form of several portrayals. Given the fact that S&T interfacing the economy and society has very large dimensions this Report could take up only a handful. Such a collage offers albeit a picture of where Indian S&T is located.

The report is the first of its kind from this country. It is targeted at a wide readership ranging from policy makers and advisors to academic readers as well as the common person. The contents of the report are:


Director, NISTADS


Professor S.K.Joshi










Pattern of Enrolments at Different Educational Levels

Vipan Kumar, NareshKumar, Neelam Kumar


Enrolment Trends at different levels



Pattern of enrolment in professional courses





Vocational Education in India

Indranil Biswas


Graphical representation of capacity and availability of ITIs and ITCs in India



Paramedical practitioner Status in Rural India



School- a part of vocational Studies-brief statistics



Other premier organizations providing Vocational Training (Govt. and Non-Govt.)



Communities trained by KVIC



Initiatives taken in 11th Five year plan





Educational Infrastructure in India

Naresh Kumar, VipanKumar, NeelamKumar




Performance in Sciences at Secondary/Higher Secondary Level

Vipan Kumar, Naresh Kumar, Nitin Gupta


Innovative Practices of Indian Students



Performance in State Boards (2007)





Stock of Indian S&T Manpower

Deepak Saxena, P. Banerjee




Inter-State Migration at Secondary level

Vipan Kumar, Avinash Kshitij




International Migration of Students

Naresh Kumar, Vipan Kumar


Flow of students from India and China





Migration of Indians Abroad

Deepak Saxena, P. Banerjee




Measures to promote Basic Science

Naresh Kumar , Vipan Kumar




Higher Education and Research Training

P. Banerjee




Medical Manpower in India: An Overview

Kasturi Mandal




Gender and Science in India

Neelam Kumar


Historical Background



Contemporary data



Indian S&T systems: the place of Females







Financing of S&T in India

Dinesh Abrol, Vinod Upadhyay, Pawan Sikka, Parvathi K. Iyer


Financial Resources for S&T



Financial Resources for R&D



Financial resources for project funding



Technology Financing System in India



Technology Development and Innovation Programme



Technology Funding by TDB



Special Technological Projects Funded by DST



Development of Bio-tech Products



Renewable Energy Projects



New Initiatives



Erstwhile Technology Financing Schemes



Sectoral analyses








Financing of Health S&T

Parvathi K. Iyer, Dinesh Abrol


Public Health Expenditure



Central Sector



State Sector



Future Initiatives





Financing of Environmental S&T

Kasturi Mandal




Investment in S&T and Innovation in India

Kasturi Mandal, Vipan Kumar, P. Banerjee


Data on funding of S&T and R&D



Mode of funding and capacity in S&T






S&T Infrastructure

Devashree Nayak, P.V.S. Kumar


Ministry of Science & Technology (MST)


Department of Space (DOS)


Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)


Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)


Ministry of Agriculture


Ministry of Earth Sciences


Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD)


Ministry of Communication & information Technology (MCIT)


Software Export- Import Statistics


Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s)


Observations and Conclusion


Coordination and Governance: S&T structure and infrastructure

Kasturi Mandal, Avinash Kshitij, P. Banerjee


Modes of governance



Modes of funding



Governance types



Infrastructure dedicated to S&T



Schemes and Programmes for S&T Infrastructure development



Lessons learnt





The Regional Innovation System: Tracing the evolution in main regional governance characteristics

M.U. Khan


Appraisal of Regional Governance System



Regional policy benchmarking and trans-regional learning



Innovation governance and policy trends





Science in Kerala – a Snapshot

Gangan Prathap




Science and Technology Mapping in States of India

Kasturi Mandal, Anand Mohan Mishra




Technology Transfer

Kavita Mehra




Technology Park: Snapshots

Kavita Mehra


Software Technology Parks of India (STPI)





Biotechnology Parks and Incubators

Kavita Mehra


Lucknow Biotech Park



Shapoorji Pallonji Biotech park Pvt. Ltd.



MITCON Biotechnology Incubation Centre



Other BT Parks





New Public Initiatives in Biotechnology

Kavita Mehra


Biotechnology Industry Partnership Programme (BIPP)



Biotechnology Industry Research & Development Assistance Council (BIRAC)





Public R&D – Private Industry Partnerships

Rama Bansal


Organization Specific Partnership Enabling Initiatives



Financial Institutions for promoting R&D Agency-Industry Partnerships



Cases of Technology Transfer






Kirti Joshi





Recent initiatives



Social causes





Editors from India in Global Journals

P. Banerjee




Disease Coverage in Web Editions of three Indian English Language Dailies

K.C. Garg, Bharvi Dutt, Suresh Kumar




S&T Coverage in English-language Indian dailies

Bharvi Dutt, K.C.Garg, Suresh Kumar




Public Understanding of Science in India

Gauhar Raza, Surjit Singh, PVS Kumar and Devashree Nayak






Salient Features of Growth, Efficiency and Technical Change in the Indian Economy over Sixty Years

Panchanan Das




Technical changes in the Indian Economy as Evident from Input-Output Tables 1993-94 and 2003-04

Pradip Biswas, Panchanan Das, P. Banerjee


Innovation in the economy



Technological changes in relation to food crops



Technological changes in relation to allied agricultural activities



Technological changes in relation to agro-processed industries



Technological changes in relation to textiles



Technological changes in relation to furniture, wood products, etc.:



Technological changes in relation to rubber, chemical and others:



Changes in Energy Intensity in Selected Industries: Evidence from Input-Output Tables 1993-94 and 2003-04



Imports of technology intensive inputs





Trends in High Technology Trade

Sanjib Pohit




Industrial R&D in India: Broad Indications

Sunil Mani


Trends in R&D Investment



Trends in Patenting



Trends in technology trade balance





Industrial R&D in India: Contemporary Scenario

Sujit Bhattacharya, Kashmiri Lal


R&D Investment: International Scenario



Industrial R&D-Indian Scenario



Key findings





FDI in R&D in India

A.K. Bhardwaj, Rammi Kapoor


Internationalization of R&D



New Trends in R&D Internationalization



Indian Scenario



Linkages with Indian Production and R&D system





R&D in Private Industry in Post liberalization Period (1990-91 to 2006-07)

Yogesh Suman, Kavita Mehra




Pattern of innovation and R&D in select sectors by listed and other companies of India

Avinash Kshitij, Bikramjit Sinha, P. Banerjee


Indian companies and R&D



Inter-Sector restructuring



Non-R&D innovation and R&D in select industry sectors based on mostly listed companies



Regional Performances: sector-wise & based on mostly listed companies





Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises of India: Innovation Status and State of Affairs

P. Banerjee


Industrial organization in tiny sector



Public procurement for MSME



Rural inputs into MSME



Sustainability of MSME



Knowhow and knowledge flows for MSME



Entrepreneurship in non hi-tech MSME



Innovation & technological change agency: Governance and monitoring



Importance of MSME in Indian Industry and Changes of Industrial Policy

Indranil Biswas


Entrepreneurship in MSME

Indranil Biswas, Avinash Kshitij, Saurabh Atri


Ancillarization of MSME units in India



Skill-pull in Indian MSME



Exchange of Knowledge and Other Factors between MSME and Factories in Different Geographies

Avinash Kshitij, Indranil Biswas, P. Banerjee







Non-R&D Innovation in Indian Organized Factory Enterprises

Bikramjit Sinha,, Avinash Kshitij, Yogesh Suman, P. Banerjee


Policy targets for innovation



Innovation policy types



Policy and governance of innovative changes



Innovation policy schematic



Nature of innovative changes



Innovation patterns in organized factory-based enterprises



Innovation in total manufacturing industries



Another account of innovation in factory sector



Innovation across different types of ownership



Location based innovation in industries



Inter-state comparison of industrial innovation



Innovations in sectors – Non R&D aspects





Inter sector comparative innovation in some select sectors of factories

Yogesh Suman




Recent Trend in Technology Up-gradation in the Indian Textile Industry: Need for S&T Intervention

Pradip Biswas




Indian Automotive Industry: Innovation and Growth

Mamata Parhi


Chronology and typology of India’s automotive growth



Growth Dynamics of Automotive Segment



Auto Component Industry – Recent Performance Indicators





Automobile Sector: Innovative Changes in Factory Sector over 2000-04

Panchanan Das




Tyre Industry in India

Parvathi K. Iyer


R&D Efforts, Exports & Sales



Technology Generation






Recent Initiatives



Future Prospects





India’s Telecommunications Industry

Sunil Mani


Contribution of telecommunications sector to India’s economy



Dimensions of the growth performance of telecommunications services





Growth Performance of Technology Oriented Industries in India: Case – Biotechnology

S. Visalakshi


Biotechnology Industry in India



Structure of Biotech industry



Biotech market in India



Performance of Biotech Industry in India





Pharmaceutical Industry

S. Visalakshi, Varun Satia, Parvathi K. Iyer










Structure and Performance of Small and Medium Scale Pharmaceutical Firms

Parvathi K. Iyer




Regulatory Issues in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

Parvathi K. Iyer


Major Regulatory Bodies



Temporal Progression of Drug Policies and Acts



Drug Pricing



Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)



Clinical Trials



Medical Devices



Biotech products





Indian Herbal Sector

Kirti Joshi








Government stand



IPR Issues



Loss to the Country





Human Vaccine Science and Technology Status in India

Y. Madhavi


Vaccine R&D Status in India



Status of Vaccine R&D Achievements



Indian Vaccine manufacturing capabilities





Knowledge Capability and Capacity in Biomedical field

P. Banerjee


Research from hospitals: evidence

Avinash Kshitij, P. Banerjee




Institutional distribution of biomedical knowledge

P. Banerjee


Role of hospital in research

P. Banerjee




Biomedical knowledge assets in Indian cities

P. Banerjee




India’s Capability and Competence in Energy sector R&D

Kirti Joshi, Avinash Kshitij, Bikramjit Sinha, Vipan Kumar, Kasturi Mandal


Demand and supply scenario



Role of Private sector in Energy Sector R&D



Role of Public sector in Energy Sector R&D








Materials R&D and Innovation

Avinash Kshitij, Bikramjit Sinha


Materials Production in India



India’s Materials Trade



Materials R&D Strategy of India



Materials R&D in the private sector



Materials R&D in the universities/research organizations: Knowledge Generation



The Way Ahead










Status of India in Science and Technology as reflected in its Publication Output in Scopus International Database, 1997-2007

B.M. Gupta, S.M. Dhawan


India’s Publication Share and Rank in World



Subject Profile of India in Science and Technology



India’s Research Output by Geographical Regions



Output & Impact of National Funding



High Productivity S&T Institutions in India



Status of India’s International Collaboration in Science & Technology



Most Productive Journals in Science & Technology



High Cited Papers from India








Indian Scientific Output as seen through Indian Science Abstracts

K.C. Garg, Suresh Kumar, Bharvi  Dutt




Mathematics Output

A. Kshitij , P. Banerjee




Global Malaria Vaccine Research: Reflections from Publications

K.C. Garg, Suresh Kumar, Y. Madhavi, Mala Bahl




Profile of Indian Science Journals

K.C. Garg, Suresh Kumar, Bharvi Dutt




Membership of Editorial Boards of US and UK Journals in Clinical Medicine Field

Praveen Sharma




Appropriation and Value of Publications, the Knowledge Assets

P. Banerjee




Access to International Journals using Citations: a case study of Medical Science Research in India

K.C. Garg, Suresh Kumar, Bharvi Dutt




Indian Patent Output 1990-2007

V.K. Gupta


Salient highlights of the findings





Indian Publications and Patents Output in Information and Communication Technology

Akshay Khatreja, V.K. Gupta


Growth in publications



Growth in patenting





Indian Publications and Patents Output in Nanotechnology

Anit Kumar Panda, V.K. Gupta


Salient results





Indian Patents in Biotechnology

S. Visalakshi


Salient features



Nature of Applicants for Indian BT Patents



Focus of Indian Biotech Patents








Strategic Worth of Patenting

P. Banerjee


Some observations













Science and Technology for Rural Development: A Synergy Approach

Rangan Dutta




Non-Farm Occupation in Rural India

A.K. Mukhopadhyay, D. Gangopadhyay, Saswati Nayak










Rural Development: A strategy for poverty alleviation in India

D. Gangopadhyay, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, Pushpa Singh




Status of use of Modern Implements, Farm Machinery and Hand Tools

Indranil Biswas, Bikramjit Sinha


Availability of information about new technology



Credit and Finance for Farmers



Major farm machinery training and testing institutes in India



Usage of modern farm implements



Export Import scenario



Hand tools



Some key observations





One Segment of Unorganized Sector Workers:  Rural Artisans

S.S. Solanki


Present Scenario



Some Insights from Rural Artisans



Organization of Trainings



Policy Implications





Shelter: A Big Challenge for Rural India

Bikramjit Sinha, Indranil Biswas


Present Scenario of housing



Government efforts in rural shelter



Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY)



State-run housing Schemes



Financing Rural Housing



Research Agencies in Rural Housing



Creating a market for innovation in housing – a push and pull approach





Drinking Water Supply vis-a-vis Technological Interventions for Social Empowerment of Rural India

Kasturi Mandal


Progress achieved so far



Health cost



Role of Technology in Rural Water Supply



Some Technological Success stories





Rural Sanitation: A step towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal No 7, Target 10

Kasturi Mandal




Rural Energy Security in India: Reality Checks

Bikramjit Sinha, Indranil Biswas


Facts of energy scenario in rural India



Pattern of rural energy consumption



Government initiatives



Sources for Rural Energy



The way ahead


Applications of Geospatial Information Technologies for Rural Development & Inclusive Growth in India

Subhan Khan


Some Applications of Geospatial Technologies



Some Policy Implications





Government Intervention in Focal Areas of Traditional System of Medicine

Kirti Joshi








XI five year plan



Existing R & D Infrastructure








Impact of Science & Technology on Indian Fisheries Sector

B. Ganesh Kumar, K.K. Datta




Mushrooms: The vegetable of future

NSK Harsh, Kirti Joshi


Indian Status






Food security



Major Constraints





Horticulture: Post Harvest Management

Saswati Nayak, A.K. Mukhopadhyay


Post Harvest Research



Fruits and Vegetable Processing



Recent Policy Initiatives



EXIM Scenario



Future post-harvest research priorities





Key issues in Post-harvest Management of Fruits and Vegetables in India

L. Pulamte


Inadequate post harvest infrastructures



Lack of processing facilities



Pesticidal contamination



Plant breeding for quality





Livestock in Mixed Farming: A Leveraging Asset for Inclusive Rural Development in India

Indranil Biswas, Bikramjit Sinha


Status of livestock asset according to land holding capacity



Livestock Diseases and clinics





Sericulture Industry in India – A Review

D. Gangopadhyay


Present status



Types of silk



Position in global sericulture



Science, Technology and Trends



Potentiality of the sericulture industry



Summing up





Potential of Bio-pesticides in Indian agriculture vis-a-vis Rural Development

Bikramjit Sinha, Indranil Biswas


Scope of Bio-pesticides



Factors affecting growth of Bio-pesticides



Usage of Bio-pesticides



Industry Overview



R &D Status of Bio-pesticides



Bio-pesticides in India



Public support system



Bio-pesticides for rural development








Indigenous Agricultural Systems of Northeast India

L. Pulamte


Rice based farming system of the Apatanis of Arunachal Pradesh



Zabo based terrace wet rice cum fish culture of the Chakhesangs



Bamboo drip irrigation system of Jaintia and Khasi Hills of Meghalaya



Alder-based jhum system of the Angamis of Nagaland





Foodgrains: Seed Development & Production

Kirti Joshi


Government initiatives



R&D Focus



Seed Strategy/ Long Term Policy Framework 





GM Crops: Potential for Second Green Revolution?

Kirti Joshi


Legal institution



GM Foods








ICT in Agriculture Marketing

Mala Bahl


The Indian Agricultural Scenario



A Few Important Models, Initiatives, Projects of the Agricultural Marketing Information Network:



Major Recommendations





Mechanism of Developing and Fixing Food Standards

Kirti Joshi


Developing food standards



Regulatory Bodies



Food Safety Certification



Food Testing Infrastructure





Towards Agricultural Innovation Policy

Suresh Pal, Uree N Choudhary, Rashi Mitta


Agricultural Research System



Capacity for Innovation: Role of Policy and Institutions








A paper version of an Extended Summary of this report can be availed from:    NISTADS, Pusa Gate, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi – 110012

A pdf version of the Extended Summary is available on Click.

We at NISTADS greatly appreciate any feedback on the report (or it,s component parts), Please Click to provide Feedback.